Phase Ia Study of FoxP3+ CD4 Treg Depletion by Infusion of a Humanized Anti-CCR4 Antibody, KW-0761, in Cancer Patients.

Clinical Cancer Research

PubMedID: 26429981

Kurose K, Ohue Y, Wada H, Iida S, Ishida T, Kojima T, Doi T, Suzuki S, Isobe M, Funakoshi T, Kakimi K, Nishikawa H, Udono H, Oka M, Ueda R, Nakayama E. Phase Ia Study of FoxP3+ CD4 Treg Depletion by Infusion of a Humanized Anti-CCR4 Antibody, KW-0761, in Cancer Patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(19):4327-36.
PURPOSE
FoxP3(+) Tregs inhibit immune responses against tumors. KW-0761 is a humanized anti-human CCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. Depletion of CCR4-expressing FoxP3(+) CD4 Tregs by KW-0761 infusion was investigated in solid cancer patients.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
We conducted a phase Ia clinical trial of KW-0761 infusion in 7 lung and 3 esophageal cancer patients. Toxicity, clinical efficacy, changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, including Tregs, and induction of immune responses were analyzed.

RESULTS
The results showed that KW-0761 infusion in a dose range between 0.1 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg was safe and well tolerated. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Four of 10 patients showed stable disease during treatment and were long survivors. The monitoring of FoxP3(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment indicated efficient depletion of those cells, even at the lowest dose of 0.1 mg/kg used. The reduction in Th 1 CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was limited, whereas a significant reduction was observed with Th 2 and Th 17 CD4 T cells. Immune responses to cancer/testis (CT) antigens and an autoantibody response to thyroid peroxidase were observed in some patients.

CONCLUSIONS
The findings showed Tregs depletion and the possible occurrence of an immune response following KW-0761 infusion. Combined use of KW-0761 to deplete FoxP3(+) Tregs with other immunotherapies, such as cancer vaccines or checkpoint inhibitors, is a promising approach to augment immune responses. Clin Cancer Res; 21(19); 4327-36. ©2015 AACR.