Liposome-based glioma targeted drug delivery enabled by stable peptide ligands.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

PubMedID: 26428462

Wei X, Gao J, Zhan C, Xie C, Chai Z, Ran D, Ying M, Zheng P, Lu W. Liposome-based glioma targeted drug delivery enabled by stable peptide ligands. J Control Release. 2015;21813-21.
The treatment of glioma is one of the most challenging tasks in clinic. As an intracranial tumor, glioma exhibits many distinctive characteristics from other tumors. In particular, various barriers including enzymatic barriers in the blood and brain capillary endothelial cells, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) rigorously prevent drug and drug delivery systems from reaching the tumor site. To tackle this dilemma, we developed a liposomal formulation to circumvent multiple-barriers by modifying the liposome surface with proteolytically stable peptides, (D)CDX and c(RGDyK). (D)CDX is a D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the BBB, and c(RGDyK) is a ligand of integrin highly expressed on the BBTB and glioma cells. Lysosomal compartments of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in the transcytosis of those liposomes. However, both peptide ligands displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate, ensuring that intact ligands could exert subsequent exocytosis from brain capillary endothelial cells and glioma targeting. In the cellular uptake studies, dually labeled liposomes could target both brain capillary endothelial cells and tumor cells, effectively traversing the BBB and BBTB monolayers, overcoming enzymatic barrier and targeting three-dimensional tumor spheroids. Its targeting ability to intracranial glioma was further verified in vivo by ex vivo imaging and histological studies. As a result, doxorubicin liposomes modified with both (D)CDX and c(RGDyK) presented better anti-glioma effect with prolonged median survival of nude mice bearing glioma than did unmodified liposomes and liposomes modified with individual peptide ligand. In conclusion, the liposome suggested in the present study could effectively overcome multi-barriers and accomplish glioma targeted drug delivery, validating its potential value in improving the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin for glioma.