Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by ß-arrestins in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts.

Disease models & mechanisms

PubMedID: 26449263

Philip JL, Razzaque MA, Han M, Li J, Theccanat T, Xu X, Akhter SA. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by ß-arrestins in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts. Dis Model Mech. 2015;.
Oxidative stress in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) promotes transformation to myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis leading to myocardial fibrosis, a precursor to heart failure (HF). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, mechanisms of Nox4 regulation are unclear. ß-arrestins are scaffold proteins that signal in G-protein-dependent and -independent pathways; for example, in ERK activation. We hypothesize that ß-arrestins regulate oxidative stress in a Nox4-dependent manner and increase fibrosis in HF. CFs were isolated from normal and failing adult human left ventricles. Mitochondrial ROS/superoxide production was quantitated using MitoSox. ß-arrestin and Nox4 expressions were manipulated using adenoviral overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and Nox4 expression in CFs were significantly increased in HF. Nox4 knockdown resulted in inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased basal and TGF-ß-stimulated collagen and a-SMA expression. CF ß-arrestin expression was upregulated fourfold in HF. ß-arrestin knockdown in failing CFs decreased ROS and Nox4 expression by 50%. ß-arrestin overexpression in normal CFs increased mitochondrial superoxide production twofold. These effects were prevented by inhibition of either Nox or ERK. Upregulation of Nox4 seemed to be a primary mechanism for increased ROS production in failing CFs, which stimulates collagen deposition. ß-arrestin expression was upregulated in HF and plays an important and newly identified role in regulating mitochondrial superoxide production via Nox4. The mechanism for this effect seems to be ERK-mediated. Targeted inhibition of ß-arrestins in CFs might decrease oxidative stress as well as pathological cardiac fibrosis.