Signs and Related Mechanisms of Ethanol Hepatotoxicity.

Current drug abuse reviews

PubMedID: 26452450

Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Magalhaes T, Queiros O, Proenca JB, Moreira R, de Lourdes Bastos M, Carvalho F. Signs and Related Mechanisms of Ethanol Hepatotoxicity. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2015;8(2):86-103.
Ethanol is the most abused psychoactive substance. Accordingly to World Health Organization ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death (3. 3 million/year) throughout the world. This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to hepatoxicity of ethanol that may lead to suspected of abuse. Namely, steatosis, jaundice, cirrhosis, hemorrhoids, esophageal varices caput medusae, ascites, petechiae, ecchymoses, splenomegaly, hemochromatosis, xanthelasma, nutritional deficiency, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia and dilated congestive cardiomyopathy are discussed and related to the toxic mechanism of ethanol.