Temporal Levels of Urinary Neonicotinoid and Dialkylphosphate Concentrations in Japanese Women Between 1994 and 2011.

Environmental science & technology

PubMedID: 26556224

Ueyama J, Harada KH, Koizumi A, Sugiura Y, Kondo T, Saito I, Kamijima M. Temporal Levels of Urinary Neonicotinoid and Dialkylphosphate Concentrations in Japanese Women Between 1994 and 2011. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;.
Over the last two decades, usage of neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticides has increased due to their high selectivity for insects versus mammals and their effectiveness for extermination of insects resistant to conventional pesticides such as pyrethroids and organophosphates (OPs). However, historical change of the NEO exposure level in humans is poorly understood. THE AIM
of this study is to reveal changes in the levels of NEO and OP exposure in the human body over the last two decades using biomonitoring technique.We quantified urinary concentrations of 7 NEOs (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) and 4 metabolites of OPs (dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, diethylphosphate, and diethylthiophosphate) in 95 adult females aged 45-75 in 1994, 2000, 2003, 2009, and 2011 (n = 17-20 different individuals in each year).

THE RESULTS
show that the detection rates of urinary NEOs in Japanese women increased significantly between 1994 and 2011, suggesting that intakes of NEOs into the human body rose during that period.In contrast, exposure to OPs having O,O-dimethyl moieties decreased steadily according to a finding that geometric means of urinary dimethylphosphate concentrations kept diminishing considerably. These changes may reflect the amounts of NEOs and OPs used as insecticides in Japan.