Review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on laboratory analyses.

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)

PubMedID: 26623668

Grunbaum AM, Gilfix BM, Hoffman RS, Lavergne V, Morris M, Miller-Nesbitt A, Gosselin S. Review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on laboratory analyses. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016;1-11.
CONTEXT
Although the clinical use of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for the treatment of lipophilic drug toxicity is increasing, the focus of most publications is on outcome in laboratory animals or in patients.An unintended consequence of intravenous lipid emulsion is the creation of extremely lipemic blood, which may interfere with the laboratory analysis or interpretation of common analytes.

OBJECTIVE
The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology has established a lipid emulsion workgroup to review the evidence and produce recommendations on the use of this novel therapy for drug toxicity.

THE AIM
of this subgroup is to review the available evidence regarding the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion on common laboratory testing, which often forms the basis of the appraisal of the balance between benefits and potential adverse events.

METHODS
We performed a comprehensive review of the literature.Relevant articles were determined based upon a predefined methodology. Package inserts of manufacturers' assays were collected. Article inclusion required that the article met predefined inclusion criteria with the agreement of at least two members of the subgroup.

RESULTS
We included thirty-six articles in the final analysis.Evaluation of the reviewed analytes revealed heterogeneity with regards to the assessment of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion in terms of consistency and magnitude of effect across the different analytic platforms.

CONCLUSIONS
The measurements of a number of common analytes can be markedly affected by the lipemia produced by lipid emulsions such that they cannot always be interpreted in the way that most physicians use this information in typical clinical situations.In fact, a lack of appreciation of this effect may lead to unintentional treatment errors. Because the effect of the lipemia produced is dependent on the reagents and laboratory platform used, it would be useful for all future reports to clearly document sample handling, reagents and laboratory platform used, as well as any procedures employed to reduce the lipid content.