Suppression of trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 enhances proliferation and migration in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

Annals of hepatology : official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology

PubMedID: 26626643

Sawanyawisuth K, Tantapotinan N, Wongkham C, Riggins GJ, Kraiklang R, Wongkham S, Puapairoj A. Suppression of trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 enhances proliferation and migration in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Hepatol. 2015;15(1):71-81.
BACKGROUND AND AIM
Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) or tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) is a 36-kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein and exerts dual functions as an oncogene and tumor suppressor in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and functions of TROP2 in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS
TROP2 expression in 85 CCA tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry. The methylation status of TROP2 promoter was studied in 15 matched pairs of normal and CCA formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues using the bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) method. The functions of TROP2 on cancer cell behavior were investigated using siRNA in CCA cell lines. Proliferation, migration and invasion assays were performed. A PCR array was used to evaluate the impact of TROP2 knockdown on the gene expression profiles.

RESULTS
TROP2 was highly expressed in all normal bile duct epithelia, but significantly down-regulated in CCA cells. Sixty percent of CCA revealed promoter hypermethylation compared to the corresponding adjacent normal tissues. TROP2 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration in CCA cell lines, and altered the expressions of MARCK, EMP1 and FILIP1L.

CONCLUSION
We provide new evidence that TROP2 is epigenetically down-regulated and operates as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and migration in liver fluke-associated CCA.