Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

Current drug metabolism

PubMedID: 26652254

He X, Feng S. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers. Curr Drug Metab. 2015;16(10):850-63.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of cancers.