Emergence of Refractory Otomastoiditis Due to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Institutional Experience and Review of the Literature.

Clinical Infectious Diseases

PubMedID: 26689957

Yeh CF, Tu TY, Wang MC, Chu CH, Huang CY, Su WJ, Shiao AS. Emergence of Refractory Otomastoiditis Due to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Institutional Experience and Review of the Literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(6):739-45.
BACKGROUND
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection has attracted increasing attention in recent years; however, NTM otomastoiditis is extremely rare. Surgery combined with antibiotic therapy is the current mainstay of treatment; however, the reported duration of medication still varies. In this study, we aimed to analyze patients with NTM otomastoiditis and establish a more efficient treatment strategy.

METHODS
Medical records and temporal bone images of patients with NTM otomastoiditis were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, a comprehensive review of cases with NTM otomastoiditis in the literature was also performed.

RESULTS
Twenty-two patients were identified in our institution, and all patients had refractory otorrhea. The rates of granulation tissue, otalgia, and facial palsy were 90.9%, 31.8%, and 9.1%, respectively. Soft tissue attenuation via imaging studies was demonstrated in all of the middle ear cavities. All patients received medical treatment, 20 (90.9%) underwent surgery, and 4 (18.2%) underwent revision surgery. The median time to cure was similar between the "prolonged-course" and "standard-course" antibiotic groups (3.0 vs 3.3 months; P = .807). However, the former had a longer median duration of antibiotic therapy (6.0 vs 3.0 months; P = .01). In the literature review, 54 (96.4%) patients received medical treatment, 51 (91.1%) underwent surgery, and 27 (48.2%) underwent revision surgery.

CONCLUSIONS
NTM otomastoiditis should be suspected if a patient has chronic refractory otorrhea and ear granulation tissue. Surgery, which is the mainstay of treatment, should be complemented with antibiotics. In those without temporal bone osteomyelitis, antibiotic treatment can be stopped after a dry ear is achieved.