Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

Pharmaceutical biology

PubMedID: 26794209

Tseng WT, Hsu YW, Pan TM. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. Pharm Biol. 2016;1-11.
CONTEXT
Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD).Rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went (Monascaceae) NTU 568 (red mould rice) was found to contain antioxidants, including dimerumic acid (DMA) and deferricoprogen (DFC).

OBJECTIVE
The effects of DMA and DFC on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and potential protective mechanisms in differentiated PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
DMA (0-60?µM) or DFC (0-10?µM) was co-treated with 6-OHDA (200?µM, 24?h exposure) in differentiated PC-12 cells.Cell viability and intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of cell protein expression.

RESULTS
DMA and DFC significantly increased cell viability to 72% and 81% in 6-OHDA-induced differentiated PC-12 cell cultures, respectively.Furthermore, DMA and DFC reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of extracellular and intercellular ROS by 25% and 20%, respectively, and decreased NADPH oxidase-2 expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspase-3 via regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 protein expression in differentiated PC-12 cells.

CONCLUSION
DMA and DFC may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting ROS formation and apoptosis.These results showed that the metabolites from M. purpureus NTU 568 fermentation were potential therapeutic agents for PD induced by oxidative damage and should be encouraged for further research.