A Robust System for Longitudinal Knee Joint Edema and Blood Flow Assessment Based on Vector Bioimpedance Measurements.

IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems

PubMedID: 26841413

Hersek S, Toreyin H, Inan OT. A Robust System for Longitudinal Knee Joint Edema and Blood Flow Assessment Based on Vector Bioimpedance Measurements. IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst. 2016;.
We present a robust vector bioimpedance measurement system for longitudinal knee joint health assessment, capable of acquiring high resolution static (slowly varying over the course of hours to days) and dynamic (rapidly varying on the order of milli-seconds) bioresistance and bioreactance signals. Occupying an area of 78×90 mm(2) and consuming 0. 25 W when supplied with ±5 V, the front-end achieves a dynamic range of 345 O and noise floor of 0. 018 mOrms (resistive) and 0. 055 mOrms (reactive) within a bandwidth of 0. 1-20 Hz. A microcontroller allows real-time calibration to minimize errors due to environmental variability (e. g. , temperature) that can be experienced outside of lab environments, and enables data storage on a micro secure digital card. The acquired signals are then processed using customized physiology-driven algorithms to extract musculoskeletal (edema) and cardiovascular (local blood volume pulse) features from the knee joint. In a feasibility study, we found statistically significant differences between the injured and contralateral static knee impedance measures for two subjects with recent unilateral knee injury compared to seven controls. Specifically, the impedance was lower for the injured knees, supporting the physiological expectations for increased edema and damaged cell membranes. In a second feasibility study, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the dynamic impedance measures with a cold-pressor test, with a 20 mO decrease in the pulsatile resistance associated with increased downstream peripheral vascular resistance. The proposed system will serve as a foundation for future efforts aimed at quantifying joint health status continuously during normal daily life.