Modulation of mononuclear phagocyte inflammatory response by liposome-encapsulated voltage gated sodium channel inhibitor ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

PloS one

PubMedID: 24069305

Zhou X, Luo YC, Ji WJ, Zhang L, Dong Y, Ge L, Lu RY, Sun HY, Guo ZZ, Yang GH, Jiang TM, Li YM. Modulation of mononuclear phagocyte inflammatory response by liposome-encapsulated voltage gated sodium channel inhibitor ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(9):e74390.
BACKGROUND
Emerging evidence shows that anti-inflammatory strategies targeting inflammatory monocyte subset could reduce excessive inflammation and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Functional expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) have been demonstrated in monocytes and macrophages. We hypothesized that mononuclear phagocyte VGSCs are a target for monocyte/macrophage phenotypic switch, and liposome mediated inhibition of mononuclear phagocyte VGSC may attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and improve post-infarction left ventricular remodeling.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS
Thin film dispersion method was used to prepare phenytoin (PHT, a non-selective VGSC inhibitor) entrapped liposomes. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the distribution and elimination half-life of PHT entrapped liposomes were shorter than those of free PHT, indicating a rapid uptake by mononuclear phagocytes after intravenous injection. In rat peritoneal macrophages, several VGSC a subunits (NaV1.1, NaV1.3, NaV1.4, NaV1.5, NaV1.6, NaV1.7, NaVX, Scn1b, Scn3b and Scn4b) and ß subunits were expressed at mRNA level, and PHT could suppress lipopolysaccharide induced M1 polarization (decreased TNF-a and CCL5 expression) and facilitate interleukin-4 induced M2 polarization (increased Arg1 and TGF-ß1 expression). In vivo study using rat model of myocardial I/R injury, demonstrated that PHT entrapped liposome could partially suppress I/R injury induced CD43+ inflammatory monocyte expansion, along with decreased infarct size and left ventricular fibrosis. Transthoracic echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic analysis revealed that PHT entrapped liposome treatment could attenuate left ventricular structural and functional remodeling, as shown by increased ejection fraction, reduced end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, as well as an amelioration of left ventricular systolic (+dP/dt max) and diastolic (-dP/dt min) functions.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE
Our work for the first time demonstrates the therapeutic potential of VGSC antagonism via liposome mediated monocyte/macrophage targeting in acute phase after myocardial I/R injury. These results suggest that VGSCs in mononuclear phagocyte system might be a novel target for immunomodulation and treatment of myocardial I/R injury.