Cationized Magnetoferritin Enables Rapid Labeling and Concentration of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Magnetic Cell Separation Columns.

Applied and environmental microbiology

PubMedID: 27060124

Correia Carreira S, Spencer J, Schwarzacher W, Seddon AM. Cationized Magnetoferritin Enables Rapid Labeling and Concentration of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Magnetic Cell Separation Columns. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;.
UNLABELLED
In order to identify pathogens rapidly and reliably, bacterial capture and concentration from large sample volumes into smaller ones are often required. Magnetic labeling and capture of bacteria using a magnetic field hold great promise for achieving this goal, but the current protocols have poor capture efficiency. Here, we present a rapid and highly efficient approach to magnetic labeling and capture of both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using cationized magnetoferritin (cat-MF). Magnetic labeling was achieved within a 1-min incubation period with cat-MF, and 99.97% of the labeled bacteria were immobilized in commercially available magnetic cell separation (MACS) columns. Longer incubation times led to more efficient capture, with S. aureus being immobilized to a greater extent than E. coli Finally, low numbers of magnetically labeled E. coli bacteria (<100 CFU per ml) were immobilized with 100% efficiency and concentrated 7-fold within 15 min. Therefore, our study provides a novel protocol for rapid and highly efficient magnetic labeling, capture, and concentration of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

IMPORTANCE
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant global challenge. Rapid identification of pathogens will retard the spread of AMR by enabling targeted treatment with suitable agents and by reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use. Rapid detection methods based on microfluidic devices require that bacteria are concentrated from large volumes into much smaller ones. Concentration of bacteria is also important to detect low numbers of pathogens with confidence. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic separation columns capture small amounts of bacteria with 100% efficiency. Rapid magnetization was achieved by exposing bacteria to cationic magnetic nanoparticles, and magnetized bacteria were concentrated 7-fold inside the column. Thus, bacterial capture and concentration were achieved within 15 min. This approach could be extended to encompass the capture and concentration of specific pathogens, for example, by functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies or small molecule probes.