Permeabilization activated reduction in fluorescence: A novel method to measure kinetics of protein interactions with intracellular structures.

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken, N.J.)

PubMedID: 27126922

Singh PP, Hawthorne JL, Davis CA, Quintero OA. Permeabilization activated reduction in fluorescence: A novel method to measure kinetics of protein interactions with intracellular structures. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2016;.
Understanding kinetic information is fundamental in understanding biological function. Advanced imaging technologies have fostered the development of kinetic analyses in cells. We have developed Permeabilization Activated Reduction in Fluorescence (PARF) analysis for determination of apparent t1/2 and immobile fraction, describing the dissociation of a protein of interest from intracellular structures. To create conditions where dissociation events are observable, cells expressing a fluorescently-tagged protein are permeabilized with digitonin, diluting the unbound protein into the extracellular media. As the media volume is much larger than the cytosolic volume, the concentration of the unbound pool decreases drastically, shifting the system out of equilibrium, favoring dissociation events. Loss of bound protein is observed as loss of fluorescence from intracellular structures and can be fit to an exponential decay. We compared PARF dissociation kinetics with previously published equilibrium kinetics as determined by FRAP. PARF dissociation rates agreed with the equilibrium-based FRAP analysis predictions of the magnitude of those rates. When used to investigate binding kinetics of a panel of cytoskeletal proteins, PARF analysis revealed that filament stabilization resulted in slower fluorescence loss. Additionally, commonly used "general" F-actin labels display differences in kinetic properties, suggesting that not all fluorescently-tagged actin labels interact with the actin network in the same way. We also observed differential dissociation kinetics for GFP-VASP depending on which cellular structure was being labeled. These results demonstrate that PARF analysis of non-equilibrium systems reveals kinetic information without the infrastructure investment required for other quantitative approaches such as FRAP, photoactivation, or in vitro reconstitution assays. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.