Fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides enhance immunity by improving the foregut microflora and intestinal barrier in weaning rex rabbits.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology

PubMedID: 27260288

Sun H, Ni X, Song X, Wen B, Zhou Y, Zou F, Yang M, Peng Z, Zhu H, Zeng Y, Wang H, Fu X, Shi Y, Yin Z, Pan K, Jing B, Zeng D, Wang P. Fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides enhance immunity by improving the foregut microflora and intestinal barrier in weaning rex rabbits. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;.
Yupingfeng (YPF) is a kind of Astragali radix-based ancient Chinese herbal supplemented with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Radix Saposhnikoviae. Increasing evidence has proven the beneficial immunomodulating activity of YPF. However, the action mechanism(s) of it is not known. Here, we explored the immunomodulatory activity of unfermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (UYP) and fermented Yupingfeng polysaccharides (FYP) obtained using Rhizopus oligosporus SH in weaning Rex rabbits. THE RESULTS
showed that both UYP and FYP exhibited notable growth-promoting and immune-enhancing activities, improvement of the intestinal flora homeostasis, and maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity and functionality.Notably, compared with UYP, FYP effectively enhanced average daily gain, organ indices, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), TLR2, and TLR4 mRNA levels in spleen, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-a, and IFN-? protein concentrations in serum, and TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expressions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Moreover, FYP exhibited greater beneficial effects in improving the intestinal flora, including augment flora diversity and the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, reduction the abundance of Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the GIT, particularly the foregut and maintaining the intestinal barrier integrity and functionality by upregulating zonula occludens 1, claudin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, trefoil factor, and epidermal growth factor mRNA levels in the jejunum and ileum. Our results indicated the immunoenhancement effect of FYP is superior over that of UYP, which is probably related with the amelioration of the intestinal microflora and intestinal barrier in the foregut.