Potential mechanism of acute stent thrombosis with bivalirudin following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes.

International journal of cardiology

PubMedID: 27390976

Laine M, Frere C, Cuisset T, Paganelli F, Morange PE, Dignat-George F, Berbis J, Camoin-Jau L, Bonello L. Potential mechanism of acute stent thrombosis with bivalirudin following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes. Int J Cardiol. 2016;220496-500.
BACKGROUND
Clinical trials have demonstrated an excess of acute stent thrombosis (AST) in acute coronary syndromes patients (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bivalirudin compared to heparin. We aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms responsible for thrombus formation under bivalirudin.

METHODS
We compared heparin and bivalirudin during PCI for ACS in a prospective monocentre randomized study. Twenty patients were included after coronary angiography and received a loading dose (LD) of 180mg of ticagrelor at the time of PCI. They were randomly assigned to heparin (70UI/kg) intra-venous (IV) bolus or bivalirudin IV bolus of 0.75mg/kg followed by an infusion of 1.75mg/kg/h until the end of the PCI. The VASP index and thrombin generation test were used to assess the course of platelet reactivity (PR) and thrombin generation.

RESULTS
Thrombin generation and PR were identical in both groups at baseline. There was no difference in the course of PR following the LD over time. An optimal PR inhibition was reached 4h after the LD of ticagrelor. Heparin and bivalirudin infusion effectively inhibited thrombin generation during PCI. However, 4h after the end of bivalirudin infusion, thrombin generation had returned to its baseline value whereas in the heparin group it remained significantly inhibited compared to baseline and to the bivalirudin group 4h after the end of the infusion (p<0.01 and p<0.02 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS
The present study suggests that the short half-life of bivalirudin and the quick restoration of thrombin activity at a time when optimal PR is not reached may be responsible for acute stent thrombosis. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT02428725.