Atrial septal pouch - Morphological features and clinical considerations.

International journal of cardiology

PubMedID: 27390952

Holda MK, Koziej M, Holda J, Piatek K, Tyrak K, Cholopiak W, Bolechala F, Walocha JA, Klimek-Piotrowska W. Atrial septal pouch - Morphological features and clinical considerations. Int J Cardiol. 2016;220337-342.
BACKGROUND
The atrial septal pouch (SP) is a new anatomical entity within the interatrial septum. The left-sided SP may be the source of thrombus and contribute to ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphometric description of the SP.

METHODS
Two hundred autopsied hearts (23% deriving from females) with a mean age of 46.7±19.1years were investigated. We assessed the morphology of the interatrial septum. We obtained measurements and casts of the SPs, and we conducted histological staining of the left-sided SPs.

RESULTS
Patent foramen ovale was observed in 25% of hearts. We found a left SP in 41.5%, right in 5.5% and a double SP in 5.5% of hearts. We found the patent foramen ovale (PFO) more often in younger hearts, and the SP and smooth septum were more prevalently found in older hearts (p=.0023). The mean volume of the left-sided SP was 0.31±0.11ml, which represented 13.6±9.4% (range: 3.1-44.9%) of the left atrial appendage volume. The SP shape resembled a cone or a cylinder with some smaller diverticula originating from the main body. The SP free wall was composed of two layers of endocardium, transverse muscle fibers and connective tissue.

CONCLUSIONS
A left-sided SP was present in 47% of individuals. The SP arises as a result of PFO channel closure. The anatomy of left-sided SP may promote blood stasis and thrombus formation. The universal formula for SP volume was calculated.