Exenatide and metformin express their anti-inflammatory effects on human monocytes/macrophages by the attenuation of MAPKs and NF?B signaling.

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology

PubMedID: 27424158

Buldak L, Machnik G, Buldak RJ, Labuzek K, Boldys A, Okopien B. Exenatide and metformin express their anti-inflammatory effects on human monocytes/macrophages by the attenuation of MAPKs and NF?B signaling. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;.
Metformin and exenatide are effective antidiabetic drugs, and they seem to have pleiotropic properties improving cardiovascular outcomes. Macrophages' phenotype is essential in the development of atherosclerosis, and it can be modified during antidiabetic therapy, resulting in attenuated atherogenesis. The mechanism orchestrating this phenomenon is not fully clear. We examined the impact of exenatide and metformin on the level of TNF alpha, MCP-1, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) in human monocytes/macrophages. We found that both drugs reduced levels of TNF alpha, ROS, and NF?B binding activity to a similar extent. Compared to metformin, exenatide was more effective in reducing MCP-1 levels. We noted that Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) reduced the impact of exenatide on cytokines, ROS, and NF?B in cultures. Both drugs elevated the C/EBP beta phosphorylation level. EXPERIMENTS
on MAPKs showed effective inhibitory potential of exenatide toward p38, JNK, and ERK, whereas metformin inhibited JNK and ERK only.Exenatide was more effective in the inhibition of JNK than metformin. Interestingly, an in vitro setting additive effect of drugs was absent. In conclusion, here, we report that metformin and exenatide inhibit the proinflammatory phenotype of human monocytes/macrophages via influence on MAPK, C/EBP beta, and NF?B. Exenatide was more effective than metformin in reducing MCP-1 expression and JNK activity. We also showed that some effects of exenatide relied on AMPK activation. This shed light on the possible mechanisms responsible for pleiotropic effects of metformin and exenatide.