DPP-4 Inhibition by Linagliptin Attenuates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Regulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization.

Diabetes

PubMedID: 27445264

Zhuge F, Ni Y, Nagashimada M, Nagata N, Xu L, Mukaida N, Kaneko S, Ota T. DPP-4 Inhibition by Linagliptin Attenuates Obesity-Related Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Regulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization. Diabetes. 2016;65(10):2966-79.
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves a large number of chemokine and peptide hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Additionally, DPP-4 may also be involved in macrophage-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of linagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4, on macrophage migration and polarization in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DPP-4(+) macrophages in lean and obese mice were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. DPP-4 was predominantly expressed in F4/80(+) macrophages in crown-like structures compared with adipocytes in WAT of DIO mice. FACS analysis also revealed that, compared with chow-fed mice, DIO mice exhibited a significant increase in DPP-4(+) expression in cells within adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), particularly M1 ATMs. Linagliptin showed a greater DPP-4 inhibition and antioxidative capacity than sitagliptin and reduced M1-polarized macrophage migration while inducing an M2-dominant shift of macrophages within WAT and liver, thereby attenuating obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Loss of macrophage inflammatory protein-1a, a chemokine and DPP-4 substrate, in DIO mice abrogated M2 macrophage-polarizing and insulin-sensitizing effects of linagliptin. Therefore, the inhibition of DPP-4 by linagliptin reduced obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation by regulating M1/M2 macrophage status.