Identification of novel macrolides with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and type I and III IFN-augmenting activity in airway epithelium.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

PubMedID: 27494903

Porter JD, Watson J, Roberts LR, Gill SK, Groves H, Dhariwal J, Almond MH, Wong E, Walton RP, Jones LH, Tregoning J, Kilty I, Johnston SL, Edwards MR. Identification of novel macrolides with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and type I and III IFN-augmenting activity in airway epithelium. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;.
BACKGROUND
Exacerbations of asthma and COPD are triggered by rhinoviruses. Uncontrolled inflammatory pathways, pathogenic bacterial burden and impaired antiviral immunity are thought to be important factors in disease severity and duration. Macrolides including azithromycin are often used to treat the above diseases, but exhibit variable levels of efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids are also readily used in treatment, but may lack specificity. Ideally, new treatment alternatives should suppress unwanted inflammation, but spare beneficial antiviral immunity.

METHODS
In the present study, we screened 225 novel macrolides and tested them for enhanced antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as anti-inflammatory activity and activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were grown from 10 asthmatic individuals and the effects of macrolides on rhinovirus replication were also examined. Another 30 structurally similar macrolides were also examined.

RESULTS
The oleandomycin derivative Mac5, compared with azithromycin, showed superior induction (up to 5-fold, EC50?=?5-11 µM) of rhinovirus-induced type I IFNß, type III IFN?1 and type III IFN?2/3 mRNA and the IFN-stimulated genes viperin and MxA, yet had no effect on IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA. Mac5 also suppressed rhinovirus replication at 48 h, proving antiviral activity. Mac5 showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, it did not have any antibacterial properties compared with azithromycin when used against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (as a model organism) and also the respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Further non-toxic Mac5 derivatives were identified with various anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial activities.

CONCLUSIONS
The data support the idea that macrolides have antiviral properties through a mechanism that is yet to be ascertained. We also provide evidence that macrolides can be developed with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral activity and show surprising versatility depending on the clinical need.