Composition of elastin like polypeptide-collagen composite scaffold influences in vitro osteogenic activity of human adipose derived stem cells.

Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials

PubMedID: 27524229

Gurumurthy B, Bierdeman PC, Janorkar AV. Composition of elastin like polypeptide-collagen composite scaffold influences in vitro osteogenic activity of human adipose derived stem cells. Dent Mater. 2016;.
OBJECTIVE
Collagen-based scaffolds for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are continuously improved to overcome the mechanical weaknesses of collagen. We have previously demonstrated superior mechanical characteristics of the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) reinforced collagen composites. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of ELP-collagen composites to culture human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and allow them to undergo osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that hASCs would show a superior osteogenic differentiation in stiffer ELP-collagen composites compared to the neat collagen hydrogels.

METHODS
Composite specimens were made by varying ELP (0-18mg/mL) and collagen (2-6mg/mL) in a 3:1 ratio. Tensile strength, elastic modulus, and toughness were determined by uniaxial tensile testing. hASCs cultured within the composites were characterized by biochemical assays to measure cell viability, protein content, and osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, and Alizarin red staining). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used for morphological characterization of composites.

RESULTS
All composites were suitable for hASCs culture with viable cells over the 22-day culture period. The ELP-collagen composite with 18mg/mL of ELP and 6mg/mL of collagen had greater tensile strength and elastic modulus combined with higher osteogenic activity in terms of differentiation and subsequent mineralization over a period of 3 weeks compared to other compositions. The extra-cellular matrix deposits composed of calcium and phosphorous were specifically seen in the 18:6mg/mL ELP-collagen composite.

SIGNIFICANCE
The success of the 18:6mg/mL ELP-collagen composite to achieve long-term, 3-dimensional culture and osteogenic differentiation indicates its potential as a GBR scaffold.