Dermatomyositis with anti-TIF-1? antibodies as a presenting symptom of underlying triple-negative breast cancer: a case report.

BMC cancer

PubMedID: 27561848

Kubecek O, Soukup T, Paulík A, Kopecký J. Dermatomyositis with anti-TIF-1? antibodies as a presenting symptom of underlying triple-negative breast cancer: a case report. BMC Cancer. 2016;16(1):684.
BACKGROUND
Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune myopathy characterized by proximal muscle weakness, muscle inflammation, and typical skin findings. It is a rare disease with an incidence of ~1/100 000. About 15-30 % of adult-onset cases are caused by underlying malignancy and dermatomyositis can be the first symptom of undiagnosed cancer, mainly in the case of anti-transcription intermediary factor 1? (anti-TIF-1?) antibodies presence. TIF-1? is a transcriptional cofactor which is implicated in TGFß signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Its expression was shown to be associated with younger age, higher tumor grade, more estrogen receptor negativity, tumors larger than 2 cm, and tendency towards poor outcome in early breast cancer. No association between anti-TIF-1? antibodies and prognosis has been proposed yet.

CASE PRESENTATION
We report a case of a 43-year-old premenopausal woman presenting with the symptoms of systemic rheumatic disease, the most prominent being a typical skin rash and muscle pain. After a series of investigations, the patient was diagnosed with anti-TIF-1? positive dermatomyositis and concurrent triple-negative breast cancer (cT1c N3c M0) as an underlying cause. Immediate intravenous corticosteroid therapy relieved the symptoms and enabled anticancer therapy to be commenced. Considering the tumor stage, neoadjuvant therapy with 4 courses of AC (Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide) followed by 4 courses of Paclitaxel/Carboplatin was administered. However, no tumor regression was documented and radiotherapy was chosen as the definitive treatment.

CONCLUSION
Early detection of anti-TIF-1? autoantibodies can contribute to a rapid diagnosis of tumor-associated dermatomyositis and enable immediate anticancer treatment. We demonstrate the emerging role of anti-TIF-1? antibodies in the diagnostics of tumor-associated dermatomyositis. Furthermore, we propose a potential role of anti-TIF-1? antibodies as a prognostic marker in early breast cancer patients.