Mechanisms of islet damage mediated by pancreas cold ischemia/rewarming.

Cryobiology

PubMedID: 27587006

Omori K, Kobayashi E, Rawson J, Takahashi M, Mullen Y. Mechanisms of islet damage mediated by pancreas cold ischemia/rewarming. Cryobiology. 2016;.
Prolonged pancreas cold ischemia is known to negatively correlate with islet isolation outcomes, hindering successful islet transplantation to treat Type-1 Diabetes. Due to poor islet isolation outcome, pancreata with over 16 h cold ischemia are currently not considered for islet transplantation. Mechanisms involved in pancreas cold ischemia/rewarming mediated islet damage during islet isolation and culture are not well understood. Using an en bloc cold preserved rat pancreas preparation, we attempted to clarify possible mechanisms of islet death associated with prolonged pancreas cold ischemia and subsequent rewarming. Cold ischemia lasting 16 h decreased post-isolation islet yield and increased islet death during the initial 6 h of culture. Electron micrographs revealed swelling and severe disruption of cellular and mitochondrial membranes, as well as an enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in ß-cells isolated from cold preserved pancreata. Prolonged cold ischemia of the pancreas transiently activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in isolated islets and increased lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 after culture, indicating the activation of oxidative stress signaling pathways. The islet isolation process, irrespective of pancreas cold ischemia, activated unfolded protein response (UPR), while the ER protective chaperon BiP was further upregulated by pancreas cold ischemia/rewarming. During the first 6 h of culture following islet isolation, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) and caspase-3 activation were also upregulated. Our study indicates the involvement of both apoptosis and necrosis in islet death, and suggests oxidative stress and disruption of membranes are critical mechanisms mediated by pancreas cold ischemia/rewarming.