Dynamics of limnological parameters in reservoirs: A case study in South Brazil using remote sensing and meteorological data.

The Science of the total environment

PubMedID: 27639022

Breunig FM, Pereira Filho W, Galvão LS, Wachholz F, Cardoso MA. Dynamics of limnological parameters in reservoirs: A case study in South Brazil using remote sensing and meteorological data. Sci Total Environ. 2016;574253-263.
Reservoirs are important in Brazil for the production of hydroelectric power and human water consumption. The objective was to evaluate the variability of total suspended solids (TSS) and chlorophyll-a as well as the rainfall/temperature and land use impacts on these optically active constituents (OAC). The study area is the Passo Real reservoir in south Brazil. The methodology was divided in four steps. First, we used wavelet to detect anomalous periods of rainfall and temperature (2002-2014). Second, we carried out 12 field campaigns to obtain in situ measurements for limnological characterization (2009-2010). The third step was the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra and Aqua satellites data corrected and non-corrected for bidirectional effects. Finally, we evaluated potential drivers of OAC changes over time using cross-correlation analysis. THE RESULTS
showed a decrease in the TSS and chlorophyll-a concentrations from the upper to the lower streams of the reservoir.The exponential regression between the MODIS red reflectance and TSS had an adjusted r(2) of 0. 63. It decreased to 0. 53 for the relationship between the green reflectance and chlorophyll-a. MODIS data corrected for bidirectional effects provided better OAC estimates than non-corrected data. The validation of MODIS TSS and chlorophyll-a estimates using a separate set of measurements showed a RMSE of 2. 98mg/l and 2. 33µg/l, respectively. MODIS estimates indicated a gradual transition in OAC from the upper to the lower streams in agreement with the patterns observed using field limnological data. The analysis of land use (greenness) showed two well-defined crop cycles per year. The highest seasonal concentrations of TSS and chlorophyll-a were observed in December and the lowest concentrations in April. Despite the interrelationships between both factors, our cross-correlation analysis indicated that the great concentrations of TSS and chlorophyll-a were primarily controlled by rainfall and secondarily by land use.