Distribution, enrichment, and source identification of selected heavy metals in surface sediments of the Siran River, Mansehra, Pakistan.

Environmental monitoring and assessment

PubMedID: 27640167

Raza A, Farooqi A, Javed A, Ali W. Distribution, enrichment, and source identification of selected heavy metals in surface sediments of the Siran River, Mansehra, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188(10):572.
To assess the trace metal pollution in the Siran River, sediments were collected from 12 sites, from the left and right banks of the river in 2013. The concentrations, accumulation, distribution pattern, and pollution status of heavy metals in sediments were investigated using geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). The toxic risk of heavy metals was assessed using interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQGs), portable effect level (PEL), threshold effect level (TEL), and toxic effect threshold (TET). I geo and EF values showed that sediments were loaded with Ni, Cd, Pb, and Co and no obvious variations were found among the left and right banks of the river. The EF and I geo values were found in order of Co > Pb > Ni > As > Cd > Cu > Zn > Fe and Cd > Co > Pb > Ni > As > Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis like inter-metal correlation, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that geogenic and anthropogenic activities were major sources of sediment contamination in the study area. These results indicated that more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.