Comparative Evaluation of Pediatric Patients with Mental Retardation undergoing Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia: A Retrospective Analysis.

The journal of contemporary dental practice

PubMedID: 27659087

Ahuja R, Jyoti B, Shewale V, Shetty S, Subudhi SK, Kaur M. Comparative Evaluation of Pediatric Patients with Mental Retardation undergoing Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia: A Retrospective Analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016;17(8):675-8.
INTRODUCTION
Behavioral management of patients forms one of the foremost components of pediatric dental treatment. Some children readily cooperate with dental treatment, while others require general anesthesia as a part of treatment protocol for carrying out various dental procedures. Hence, we evaluated the pediatric patients with and without mental retardation, who underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study analyzed the record of 480 pediatric patients reporting in the department of pedodontics from 2008 to 2014. Analysis of the records of the patients who underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia was done and all the patients were divided into two study groups depending upon their mental level. For the purpose of evaluation, the patients were also grouped according to their age; 4 to 7 years, 8 to 12 years, and 13 to 18 years. Measurement of decayed, missing, and filled teeth and scores for both deciduous and permanent dentition was done before and after the commencement of the dental treatment. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for evaluating the level of significance.

RESULTS
While comparing the patients in the two groups, maximum number of patients is present in the age group of 13 to 18 years. While comparing the indices' score between the two study groups in various age intervals, no statistically significant results were obtained. Restorative treatment and dental extractions were the most common dental treatments that were seen at a higher frequency in the intellectual disability study group.

CONCLUSION
In patients with mental retardation, a higher frequency of restorative treatment and extractions occurs as compared to healthy subjects of similar age group. Therefore, they require special attention regarding maintenance of their oral health.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Special attention should be given for maintaining the oral health of patients with special health care needs as compared to their physically and mentally normal counterparts.