Most American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Members Have Not Adopted the American Society of Anesthesiologists-Recommended Nil Per Os Guidelines.

Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

PubMedID: 27670066

Johnson RE, Eckert PP, Gilmore W, Viswanath A, Finkelman M, Rosenberg MB. Most American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Members Have Not Adopted the American Society of Anesthesiologists-Recommended Nil Per Os Guidelines. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;74(10):1926-31.
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to determine if American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members have integrated the current American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) nil per os (NPO) guidelines into their preoperative instructions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a random sample of private-practice American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members who practice in the United States. The predictor variables were year of graduation from residency, dual degree (MD and DDS or DMD) or single degree, and region. The primary outcome variable was adoption of the ASA NPO guidelines, defined as recommending fasting times of 2 hours for clear liquids and 6 hours for solid foods. To collect data, a systematic online search was implemented. Appropriate univariate and bivariate statistics were computed, and the level of significance was set at .05; in addition, 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

RESULTS
The study sample was composed of 431 oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs). Almost all of the study sample (99.1%) did not adopt the ASA guidelines. The fasting recommendations were different from 2 hours for clear liquids and 6 hours for solid foods. However, recommendations of 2 hours or greater for clear liquids were made by 99.8% of OMSs, and recommendations of 6 hours or greater for solid foods were made by 99.3%. Only 4.4% of OMSs made different recommendations for clear liquids and solid foods. No substantial association was found between whether OMSs adopted the most current ASA guidelines and the year they graduated from residency or the obtainment of dual degrees.

CONCLUSIONS
OMSs in private practice are overwhelmingly recommending longer fasting times for clear liquids and solid foods on their Web sites when compared with the current ASA guidelines before ambulatory anesthesia. The ASA guidelines are based on meta-analysis; therefore, deviations in practice, although not incorrect, may call for discussion.