Cytological and biophysical comparative analysis of cell structures at the microsporogenesis stage in sterile and fertile Allium species.

Planta

PubMedID: 27686466

Tch├│rzewska D, Derylo K, Winiarczyk K. Cytological and biophysical comparative analysis of cell structures at the microsporogenesis stage in sterile and fertile Allium species. Planta. 2016;.
MAIN CONCLUSION
Using a live-cell-imaging approach and autofluorescence-spectral imaging, we showed quantitative/qualitative fluctuations of chemical compounds within the meiocyte callose wall, providing insight into the molecular basis of male sterility in plants from the genus Allium. Allium sativum (garlic) is one of the plant species exhibiting male sterility, and the molecular background of this phenomenon has never been thoroughly described. This study presents comparative analyses of meiotically dividing cells, which revealed inhibition at the different microsporogenesis stages in male-sterile A. sativum plants (cultivars Harnas and Arkus) and sterile A. ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum (GHG-L), which is phylogenetically related to garlic. Fertile species A. ampeloprasum (leek) was used as the control material, because leek is closely related to both garlic and GHG-L. To shed more light on the molecular basis of these disturbances, autofluorescence-spectral imaging of live cells was used for the assessment of the biophysical/biochemical differences in the callose wall, pollen grain sporoderm, and the tapetum in the sterile species, in comparison with the fertile leek. The use of techniques for live-cell imaging (autofluorescence-spectral imaging) allowed the observation of quantitative/qualitative fluctuations of autofluorescent chemical compounds within the meiocyte callose wall. The biophysical characterisation of the metabolic disturbances in the callose wall provides insight into the molecular basis of male sterility in A. sativum. In addition, using this method, it was possible for the first time, to determine precisely (on the basis of fluctuations of autofluorescence compounds) the meiosis stage in which normal microsporogenesis is disturbed, which was not visible using light microscopy.