PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF MELOXICAM AFTER INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION IN NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS).

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

PubMedID: 27691947

Fredholm DV, Mylniczenko ND, Kukanich B. PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF MELOXICAM AFTER INTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION IN NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016;47(3):736-742.
Critically evaluating the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug in the body provides crucial information about how to effectively treat a patient. Pharmacokinetic studies that exist in fish have primarily focused on drugs used to treat infectious disease, with minimal attention given to analgesic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) (n = 12). A single dose of meloxicam was administered either i. v. or i. m. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined times after drug injection. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The mean peak plasma concentration after i. m. injection was 1. 95 µg/ml. The mean terminal half-life of meloxicam after i. v. and i. m. administration was 1. 36 and 1. 8 hr, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity was 11. 26 hr·µg/ml after i. v. administration and 5. 72 hr·µg/ml after i. m. administration. Bioavailability of meloxicam after i. m. administration was approximately half that of i. v. administration. Elimination was rapid in both the i. m. and i. v. routes of administration, suggesting that maintaining clinically relevant plasma concentrations may be difficult using this dose. This study represents the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in a fish species, and further studies evaluating efficacy are needed.