Evaluation of Speech and Resonance for Children with Craniofacial Anomalies.

Facial plastic surgery clinics of North America

PubMedID: 27712812

Kummer AW. Evaluation of Speech and Resonance for Children with Craniofacial Anomalies. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2016;24(4):445-451.
Children with craniofacial anomalies often demonstrate disorders of speech and/or resonance. Anomalies that affect speech and resonance are most commonly caused by clefts of the primary palate and secondary palate. This article discusses how speech-language pathologists evaluate the effects of dental and occlusal anomalies on speech production and the effects of velopharyngeal insufficiency on speech sound production and resonance. How to estimate the size of a velopharyngeal opening based on speech characteristics is illustrated. Nasometry, nasopharyngoscopy, and low-tech tools are discussed as adjunct methods to aid in the evaluation, treatment planning, and measurement of outcomes.