Finding resiliency in the face of financial barriers: Development of a conceptual framework for people with cardiovascular-related chronic disease.

Medicine

PubMedID: 27930562

Campbell DJ, Manns BJ, LeBlanc P, Hemmelgarn BR, Sanmartin C, King-Shier K. Finding resiliency in the face of financial barriers: Development of a conceptual framework for people with cardiovascular-related chronic disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(49):e5561.
Patients with chronic diseases often face financial barriers to optimize their health. These financial barriers may be related to direct healthcare costs such as medications or self-monitoring supplies, or indirect costs such as transportation to medical appointments. No known framework exists to understand how financial barriers impact patients' lives or their health outcomes. We undertook a grounded theory study to develop such a framework. We used semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of participants with cardiovascular-related chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or stroke) from Alberta, Canada. Interview transcripts were analyzed in triplicate, and interviews continued until saturation was reached. We interviewed 34 participants. We found that the confluence of 2 events contributed to the perception of having a financial barrier-onset of chronic disease and lack of income or health benefits. The impact of having a perceived financial barrier varied considerably. Protective, predisposing, or modifying of factors determined how impactful a financial barrier would be. An individual's particular set of factors is then shaped by their worldview. This combination of factors and lens determines one's degree of resiliency, which ultimately impacts how well they cope with their disease. The role of financial barriers is complex. How well an individual copes with their financial barriers is intimately tied to resiliency, which is related to the composite of a personal circumstances and their worldview. Our framework for understanding the experience of financial barriers can be used by both researchers and clinicians to better understand patient behavior.