Circadian Patterns of Intraocular Pressure Fluctuation among Normal-Tension Glaucoma Optic Disc Phenotypes.

PloS one

PubMedID: 27959943

Moon Y, Kwon J, Jeong DW, Lee JY, Lee JR, Han S, Kook MS. Circadian Patterns of Intraocular Pressure Fluctuation among Normal-Tension Glaucoma Optic Disc Phenotypes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0168030.
OBJECTIVE
To characterize the 24-h habitual-position intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns of optic disc phenotypes (ODPs) in untreated normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and the relationships between nocturnal IOP elevation and various clinical factors.

DESIGN
Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study.

METHODS
Eighty-two NTG patients with focal ischemic (FI) ODP and 82 age- and disease severity-matched NTG patients with myopic glaucomatous (MG) ODP were recruited prospectively over 3 years. The IOP was recorded 11 times over a 24-hour (h) period by a single ophthalmologist using a hand-held tonometer (TonoPen®XL). A cosinor model was used to describe the 24-h IOP rhythm. Associations between nocturnal IOP elevation and both ocular and demographic variables were evaluated using the generalized estimating equation (GEE).

RESULTS
Mean habitual-position IOP was significantly higher during nighttime than daytime in the FI group (16.44 vs. 14.23 mmHg, P < 0.001), but not in the MG group (15.91 vs. 15.70 mmHg, P = 0.82). The FI group also exhibited a significantly higher peak IOP during sleeping hours (P = 0.01) and lower trough IOP during the 24-h period than the MG group (P < 0.01). The MG group showed a significantly higher peak IOP during waking hours than the FI group (P < 0.01). Therefore, 24-h IOP fluctuation range was significantly higher in the FI group than the MG group (P = 0.013). In the FI group, peak habitual-position IOP and the highest frequency of IOP peaks occurred during sleeping hours (12 AM-6 AM). By contrast, IOP peaks in the MG group occurred during morning hours (8 AM-12 PM). The FI group showed an overall nocturnal acrophase in habitual-position IOP, with 45 patients (54.9%) having a nocturnal acrophase; 10 (12.2%), a diurnal acrophase; and 27 (32.9%), no evident acrophase. By contrast, the MG group showed no evident peak in habitual-position IOP, with 9 patients (10.9%) having a nocturnal acrophase; 43 (52.4%), a diurnal acrophase; and 30 (36.6%), no evident acrophase. In multivariate modeling using the GEE, ODP (P < 0.001) and spherical equivalent (SE, P = 0.001) were independently associated with nocturnal IOP elevation.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on 24-h habitual-position IOP data, FI is associated with significant nocturnal IOP elevation, while no such nocturnal IOP elevation is observed in MG ODP. In untreated NTG, there are also significant differences in the 24-h IOP pattern between FI and MG ODPs.