Incorporation of high-dose (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment into tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma: results of the SMC NB-2009 study.

Journal of hematology & oncology

PubMedID: 28511709

Lee JW, Lee S, Cho HW, Ma Y, Yoo KH, Sung KW, Koo HH, Cho EJ, Lee SK, Lim DH. Incorporation of high-dose (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment into tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk neuroblastoma: results of the SMC NB-2009 study. J Hematol Oncol. 2017;10(1):108.
BACKGROUND
In our previous SMC NB-2004 study of patients with high-risk neuroblastomas, which incorporated total-body irradiation (TBI) with second high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT), the survival rate was encouraging; however, short- and long-term toxicities were significant. In the present SMC NB-2009 study, only TBI was replaced with (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) treatment in order to reduce toxicities.

METHODS
From January 2009 to December 2013, 54 consecutive patients were assigned to receive tandem HDCT/auto-SCT after nine cycles of induction chemotherapy. The CEC (carboplatin + etoposide + cyclophosphamide) regimen and the TM (thiotepa + melphalan) regimen with (for metastatic MIBG avid tumors) or without (for localized or MIBG non-avid tumors) (131)I-MIBG treatment (18 or 12 mCi/kg) were used for tandem HDCT/auto-SCT. Local radiotherapy, differentiation therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid, and immunotherapy with interleukin-2 were administered after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT.

RESULTS
Fifty-two patients underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT and 47 patients completed tandem HDCT/auto-SCT. There was no significant immediate toxicity during the (131)I-MIBG infusion. Acute toxicities during the tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were less severe in the NB-2009 study than in the NB-2004 study. Late effects such as growth hormone deficiency, cataracts, and glomerulopathy evaluated at 3 years after the second HDCT/auto-SCT were also less significant in the NB-2009 study than in NB-2004 study. There was no difference in the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) between the two studies (67.5?±?6.7% versus 58.3?±?6.9%, P?=?0.340).

CONCLUSIONS
Incorporation of high-dose (131)I-MIBG treatment into tandem HDCT/auto-SCT could reduce short- and long-term toxicities associated with TBI, without jeopardizing the survival rate.

TRIAL REGISTRATION
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03061656.