Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

Environmental health perspectives

PubMedID: 28572075

Mantha M, Yeary E, Trent J, Creed PA, Kubachka K, Hanley T, Shockey N, Heitkemper D, Caruso J, Xue J, Rice G, Wymer L, Creed JT. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(5):057005.
BACKGROUND
Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices.

OBJECTIVES
Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations.

METHODS
The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study.

RESULTS
Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice ([Formula: see text]); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is [Formula: see text] body weight (BW)/day.

CONCLUSIONS
An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and [Formula: see text] is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418.

BACKGROUND
Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices.

OBJECTIVES
Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations.

METHODS
The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study.

RESULTS
Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice ([Formula: see text]); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is [Formula: see text] body weight (BW)/day.

CONCLUSIONS
An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and [Formula: see text] is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418.