Potential differentiation of islet-like cells from pregnant cow-derived placental stem cells.

Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology

PubMedID: 28600038

Peng SY, Chou CW, Kuo YH, Shen PC, Shaw SWS. Potential differentiation of islet-like cells from pregnant cow-derived placental stem cells. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;56(3):306-311.
OBJECTIVE
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys islet cells and results in insufficient insulin secretion by pancreatic ß-cells. Islet transplantation from donors is an approach used for treating patients with diabetes; however, this therapy is difficult to implement because of the lack of donors. Nevertheless, several stem cells have the potential to differentiate from islet-like cells and enable insulin secretion for treating diabetes in animal models. For example, placenta is considered a waste material and can be harvested noninvasively during delivery without ethical or moral concerns. To date, the differentiation of islet-like cells from cow-derived placental stem cells (CPSCs) has yet to be demonstrated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
The investigation of potential differentiation of islet-like cells from CPSCs was conducted by supplementation with nicotinamide, exendin-4, glucose, and poly-d-lysine and was detected through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, dithizone staining, and immunocytochemical methods.

RESULTS
Our results indicated that CPSCs are established and express mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD73, CD166, ß-integrin, and Oct-4, but not hematopoietic stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD45. After induction, the CPSCs successfully differentiated into islet-like cells. The CPSC-derived islet-like cells expressed islet cell development-related genes, such as insulin, glucagon, pax-4, Nkx6.1, pax-6, and Fox. Moreover, CPSC-derived islet-like cells can be stained with zinc ions, which are widely distributed in the islet cells and enable insulin secretion.

CONCLUSION
Altogether, islet-like cells have the potential to be differentiated from CPSCs without gene manipulation, and can be used in diabetic animal models in the future for preclinical and drug testing trial investigations.