Unusual clinical outcome of primary Hyperoxaluria type 1 in Tunisian patients carrying 33_34InsC mutation.

BMC nephrology

PubMedID: 28619084

Mbarek IB, Mdimeg S, Moussa A, Zellama D, Kaarout H, Abdelmoula J, Achour A, Abroug S, Omezzine A, Bouslama A. Unusual clinical outcome of primary Hyperoxaluria type 1 in Tunisian patients carrying 33_34InsC mutation. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18(1):195.
BACKGROUND
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), is a rare and heterogeneous disease and one of major causes of renal insufficiency in Tunisia, caused by mutations in the AGXT gene. 33-34InsC mutation, was mainly described in children with a severe clinical feature leading to early death, but it was uncommonly reported in adult patients.

METHODS
Common mutations in AGXT were tested using PCR/RFLP technique in 111 patients (68 adult, 43 children) with suspected PH1.

RESULTS
We described 16 cases (eight adult and eight children) with a 33-34InsC mutation with a median age of 24 years [6 months - 73 years]. All children were in end stage renal disease (ESRD) at the median age of 3 years due to lithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis. Unfortunately, 75% of them died with a median age of 2.5 years. For the majority of adults only spontaneous elimination of urolithiasis were noted, 37.5% preserved until now a normal renal function and 62.5% of them reached ESRD at the median age of 55.8 ± 12.31 years old.

CONCLUSION
In this study 33-34InsC mutation gives a controversial clinical effect in children and adults. The implication of other genetic and/or environmental factors can play a crucial role in determining the ultimate phenotype.