Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Determinations in the Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrine Practice.

Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER

PubMedID: 28613046

Weintraub A, Eldar-Geva T. Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Determinations in the Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrine Practice. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2017;14(4):364-370.
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), secreted by immature testicular Sertoli-cells, triggers the regression of male fetal Mullerian ducts. During puberty, AMH is downregulated by intratesticular testosterone. In females, AMH is secreted from granulosa cells of immature ovarian follicles from late prenatal life until menopause; serum concentration is 5-20 times lower in females than in males through lifetime. In boys, AMH determination is useful in the clinical setting as a marker of Sertoli cell function. Serum AMH is low in infants with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (and increases with FSH treatment), in patients with primary hypogonadism from early postnatal life and in Klinefelter syndrome from midpuberty. In boys with nonpalpable gonads, AMH determination is useful to distinguish between cryptorchidism and anorchism, as well as differentiating the dysgenetic causes of disorders of sexual development from those due to defective androgen synthesis or action. AMH can be used as a marker of sertoli/granulosa cell tumors and primary ovarian insufficiency in girls with delayed puberty, Turner Syndrome and after treatment with gonadotoxic agents.