Biomarker and histopathological responses of Lates calcarifer on exposure to sub lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

PubMedID: 29091835

Marigoudar SR, Mohan D, Nagarjuna A, Karthikeyan P. Biomarker and histopathological responses of Lates calcarifer on exposure to sub lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;148327-335.
Bioassay tests on fingerlings (3. 0 ± 0. 5cm) of euryhyaline fish Lates calcarifer were conducted using customized continuous flow through system and derived 96h acute toxicity value for chlorpyrifos (CPF). Based on the measured concentration of CPF mean median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1. 07µg/l with lower and upper 95% confidence limits (0. 95 and 1. 19µg/l). No observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and chronic values were found to be 0. 4, 0. 09 and 0. 07µg/l respectively. Key biomarker enzyme activities such as esterase, superoxide dismutase and malate dehydrogenase were measured in whole body tissues of the fish fingerlings on exposure to sublethal toxicity of CPF resulting in inhibition of enzyme activities. Native gel electrophoresis revealed single isoform of SOD and MDH enzyme activities exhibiting time and concentration dependent inhibition. Interestingly, three isoforms of esterase activity were witnessed, two isoforms didn't show changes and one isoform was completely inhibited. The observed changes indicated continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, affecting the integrity and function of cell membrane. Decreased MDH activity indicates reduction of ATP production in the mitochondria leading to susceptibility of fish fingerlings due to the imposed CPF toxicity. Histopathological changes are evident as physiological signatures of chemical interactions in the cell and are prominently used for the evaluation of toxic effects. Gills and eye tissues were selected considering the possible effects on respiratory surfaces and vision impairment. Their tissue sections were observed for changes in primary & secondary lamellae, and retina of the eye respectively. Prominent pathological lesions of gills and retina of the eye include degeneration of cells, fusion, lifting of epithelium and increased cellular space, detachment of pigment epithelium, fusion of photoreceptor cells, respectively on exposure to 30 days of sub lethal concentrations. CPF was found to be highly toxic, affecting the vital functions of respiration, vision and cellular activities leading to susceptibility of fish fingerlings.