The lactase persistence genotype is associated with body mass index and dairy consumption in the D.E.S.I.R. study.

Metabolism : clinical and experimental

PubMedID: 23647908

Lamri A, Poli A, Emery N, Bellili N, Velho G, Lantieri O, Balkau B, Marre M, Fumeron F. The lactase persistence genotype is associated with body mass index and dairy consumption in the D.E.S.I.R. study. Metab Clin Exp. 2013;62(9):1323-9.
OBJECTIVE
The T allele of a functional polymorphism (rs4988235: LCT-13910 C>T), close to the lactase gene, correlates with lactase persistence (LP) in adults. The LP genotype (TT+TC) has been associated with a higher BMI in European populations in cross-sectional studies. In the French D.E.S.I.R. cohort, a high consumption of dairy products was associated with a lower body weight gain over 9-years, and with a lower incidence of high plasma glucose levels and/or the metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to test in this study, the association of rs4988235 with BMI and related metabolic diseases, in interaction with dairy product consumption.

METHODS
Among 5212 subjects from D.E.S.I.R., 3575 Caucasians born in mainland France were genotyped and followed over 9years.

RESULTS
Those with the LP genotype (frequency: 78.5%) had a higher dairy product consumption, at inclusion and at year-9 (P<0.001). They also had a higher BMI at both time points (difference=0.3kg/m(2), P=0.05), but this effect was restricted to medium/high dairy product consumers (difference=0.5kg/m(2), P=0.006). This genotype was also associated with the metabolic syndrome (IDF definition), but this association disappeared after adjustment for BMI. In the whole population, the C allele was associated with a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glycemia and/or type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS
The lactase persistence genotype was shown to be associated with a higher BMI in a longitudinal study, mainly in those consuming high amounts of dairy products. The association of the C allele, responsible for lactase non-persistence, with the risk of hyperglycemia needs to be replicated.