Affective temperaments and hopelessness as predictors of health and social functioning in mood disorder patients: A prospective follow-up study.

Journal of affective disorders

PubMedID: 23684516

Pompili M, Innamorati M, Gonda X, Serafini G, Sarno S, Erbuto D, Palermo M, Elena Seretti M, Stefani H, Lester D, Perugi G, Akiskal H, Siracusano A, Rihmer Z, Tatarelli R, Amore M, Girardi P. Affective temperaments and hopelessness as predictors of health and social functioning in mood disorder patients: A prospective follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(2):216-22.
BACKGROUND
Affective disorders are highly disabling illnesses constituting a significant burden for the patients, their family and the society. Therefore, it would be very useful to find tools which carefully subtype these conditions and have a strong and reliable predictive power concerning the course of illness and health and social functioning. To date, the role of hopelessness and affective temperaments in the prediction of health and social functioning and the course of affective disorders has not been studied. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess whether affective temperaments and hopelessness, measured during hospitalization, can be useful in the prediction of global functioning (the severity of the illness and the presence and severity of psychosocial problems) at follow-up in inpatients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD).

METHODS
The patients were 96 consecutive patients admitted to the inpatient psychiatric clinic of Sant'Andrea Hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. All patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale on admission. They were contacted on average 14 months after discharge and were asked to complete a telephone interview based on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS).

RESULTS
Two patients committed suicide before the follow-up assessment. Around 77% of the patients who completed the follow-up assessment were diagnosed as BD, and around 47% reported severe hopelessness. In the multivariate analyses, a factor derived from hopelessness and hyperthymia scores and unemployment, independently predicted severity of the illness and psychosocial functioning at the follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS
Screening for the affective temperament profile and for hopelessness has importance for designing the treatment and rehabilitation plans of affective disorder patients, as these variables are involved in the course and outcome of affective disorder patients and influence their health and social functioning.