Impact of KRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA mutations in rectal carcinomas treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery.

BMC cancer

PubMedID: 23617638

Derbel O, Wang Q, Desseigne F, Rivoire M, Meeus P, Peyrat P, Stella M, Martel-Lafay I, Lemaistre AI, de la Fouchardière C. Impact of KRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA mutations in rectal carcinomas treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery. BMC Cancer. 2013;13200.
BACKGROUND
Conventional treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer usually combines neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery. Until recently, there have been limited predictive factors (clinical or biological) for rectal tumor response to conventional treatment. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are commonly found in colon cancers. In this study, we aimed to determine the mutation frequencies of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA and to establish whether such mutations may be used as prognostic and/or predictive factors in rectal cancer patients.

METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and biological data of 98 consecutive operated patients between May 2006 and September 2009. We focused in patients who received surgery in our center after radiochemotherapy and in which tumor samples were available.

RESULTS
In the 98 patients with a rectal cancer, the median follow-up time was 28.3 months (4-74). Eight out of ninety-eight patients experienced a local recurrence (8%) and 17/98 developed distant metastasis (17%). KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were identified respectively in 23 (23.5%), 2 (2%) and 4 (4%) patients. As described in previous studies, mutations in KRAS and BRAF were mutually exclusive. No patient with local recurrence exhibited KRAS or PIK3CA mutation and one harbored BRAF mutation (12.5%). Of the seventeen patients with distant metastasis (17%), 5 were presenting KRAS mutation (29%), one BRAF (5%) and one PIK3CA mutation (5%). No relationship was seen between PIK3CA, KRAS or BRAF mutation and local or distant recurrences.

CONCLUSION
The frequencies of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in our study were lower than the average frequencies reported in colorectal cancers and no significant correlation was found between local/distant recurrences and KRAS, BRAF or PIK3CA mutations. Future studies with greater number of patients, longer follow-up time and greater power to predict associations are necessary to fully understand this relationship.