Uncertainty Is Hard for Doctors

New York Times - Health

My patient came to me for advice. His cardiologist was recommending that he get an I.C.D., a type of defibrillator, implanted in his heart. My patient hadn’t suffered any abnormal heart rhythms, but his heart was enlarged and he was at risk.

If malignant heart rhythms arose, he could die if there wasn’t immediate defibrillation available. An I.C.D. could shock his heart back into a normal rhythm. However, putting in an I.C.D. is an invasive procedure with definite risks...