The role of mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics in ageing and disease.

British Journal of Dermatology

PubMedID: 23786614

Brand MD, Orr AL, Perevoshchikova IV, Quinlan CL. The role of mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics in ageing and disease. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169 Suppl 21-8.
Mitochondria constitute an important topic of biomedical enquiry (one paper in every 154 indexed in PubMed since 1998 is retrieved by the keyword 'mitochondria') because of widespread recognition of their importance in cell physiology and pathology. Mitochondrial dysfunction is widely implicated in ageing and in the diseases of ageing, through dysfunction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, Ca(2+) homeostasis, central metabolic pathways or radical production. Nonetheless, the mechanisms and regulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation by mitochondria remain poorly described. Measurement of the capacities of different sites of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria show that the maximum capacities of sites in complexes I, II and III and in several associated redox enzymes greatly exceed the native rates observed in the absence of respiratory chain inhibitors. In vitro, the native rates and the relative importance of different sites both depend on the substrate being oxidized, with sites IQ, IIF, GPDH, IF and IIIQo each being important with particular substrates. The techniques involved in measuring rates from each site should become applicable to cell cultures and in vivo in the future.