Bed wetting - silent suffering: an approach to enuresis and voiding disorders in children.

Indian journal of pediatrics

PubMedID: 23893319

Kanitkar M, Ramamurthy HR. Bed wetting - silent suffering: an approach to enuresis and voiding disorders in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80(9):750-3.
Bed wetting or nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among children. It is either monosymptomatic or may be associated with a voiding disorder. Many factors may contribute towards enuresis such as developmental delay, heredity, inappropriate nocturnal anti diuretic hormone secretion and reduced bladder capacity. Any child presenting with bed-wetting should be evaluated for any underlying bladder dysfunction before labeling as monosymptomatic enuresis. The evaluation consists of structured bowel and bladder history, detailed clinical examination, frequency volume record and appropriate investigations. The frequency volume diary is an indispensible component of evaluation and helps in establishing diagnosis and tailoring therapy. The treatment of monosymptomatic enuresis consists of positive psychological support, alarms and medication (desmopressin/ anticholinergics/ imiprammine). Children with features of underlying bladder dysfunction, anatomical anomalies and neurological disorders should be referred to a pediatrician without delay. The outcome of therapy is usually rewarding but varies, depending on the underlying etiology, motivation, compliance and family support. The cure rates with alarms are better than with desmopressin in monosymptomatic enuresis. Timely and appropriate therapy yields better outcomes. Thus, a thorough, scientific and evidence based approach is essential in children presenting with bed-wetting.