Association of Clinical and Therapeutic Factors with Incident Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Non-Infected Adults: 1994-2011.

Metabolic syndrome and related disorders

PubMedID: 23909647

Tripathi A, Jerrell JM, Liese AD, Zhang J, Rizvi AA, Albrecht H, Duffus WA. Association of Clinical and Therapeutic Factors with Incident Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Non-Infected Adults: 1994-2011. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;.
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate of dyslipidemia in a retrospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected adults and to evaluate the association of incident dyslipidemia with exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: The study cohort included HIV-infected individuals and a matched group of non-HIV-infected individuals served through the South Carolina Medicaid database in 1994-2011. Linkage with the HIV/AIDS surveillance database provided time-varying viro-immunological status. Time-dependent proportional hazards analysis and marginal structural models were used to assess the demographic, therapeutic, and clinical factors associated with incident dyslipidemia. Results: Among 13,632 adults with a median age of 39 years, the overall incidence rate per 1000 person years of dyslipidemia was higher in cART-treated compared to cART-naïve and matched non-HIV groups (24.55 vs. 14.32 vs. 23.23, respectively). Multivariable results suggested a significantly higher risk of dyslipidemia in the cART-treated HIV-infected group [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.30] and a significantly lower risk in the cART naïve HIV-infected group (aHR=0.66; CI=0.53-0.82) compared to the control non-HIV-infected group. Marginal structural modeling suggested a significant association between incident dyslipidemia and exposure to both protease inhibitor- [adjusted rate ratio (aRR)=1.27; CI=1.08-1.49] and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- (aRR=1.78; CI=1.19-2.66) based cART regimens. Pre-existing hypertension, obesity, and diabetes increased the risk of dyslipidemia, whereas hepatitis C virus, lower CD4(+) T cell count, and higher HIV viral load had a protective effect. Conclusions: Incident dyslipidemia is lower in the early stages of HIV infection, but may significantly increase with cumulative exposure to cART. Viro-immunological status and underlying comorbidities have a strong association with the onset of dyslipidemia.