Effect of inhaled toluene diisocyanate on local immune response based on murine model for occupational asthma.

Journal of immunotoxicology

PubMedID: 23909811

Swierczynska-Machura D, Nowakowska-Swirta E, Walusiak-Skorupa J, Piasecka-Zelga J, Swiercz R, Nocun M, Palczynski C. Effect of inhaled toluene diisocyanate on local immune response based on murine model for occupational asthma. J Immunotoxicol. 2013;.
Abstract Highly reactive, low-molecular-weight diisocyanates (DIC) are the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma (OA). Animal/clinical studies of DIC asthma have been more limited compared with atopic asthma, and an understanding of DIC pathogenesis is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate in a mouse model, toluene diisocyanate (TDI, as 2,4-TDI isomer)-induced inflammatory reactions/cytokine profile changes in the lungs and accompanying changes in lymph node lymphocyte sub-populations. The study used female BALB/cJ/Han/IMP mice that were exposed first intra-nasally and then in an inhalation chamber to TDI or air. After the final exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and changes induced in inflammatory cell composition, levels of key cytokines (i.e. IL-4, TNFa, IFN?), and lymphocyte sub-population profiles within auricular lymph nodes, were evaluated. Total number of cells in the BALF of treated mice was significantly higher than in control mice BALF. There was also a significant increase in BALF neutrophil and eosinophil levels with TDI mice compared to in controls; lymphocyte and macrophage numbers did not significantly differ. A significant increase in BALF levels of TNFa and IFN? was also noted in mice exposed to TDI relative to levels in controls. BALF IL-4 levels were also increased, but the change from control was not significant. Lastly, the levels/percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+) (T-helper [TH]) lymphocytes significantly increased in the lymph nodes of TDI-exposed groups while those of the CD3(+)CD8(+) cells decreased as compared to in control mice. These studies, the first to assess TDI-induced changes in levels of three key cytokines in BALF in conjunction with changes in local lymph nodes following first an intra-nasal and then a general inhalation exposure to a low-level of TDI, confirm that TDI inhalation induces a pathology manifested by airway inflammation, TH cell-derived cytokine production, and shifts in lymph node lymphocytes sub-populations toward increases in TH cells.