Smoking cessation for hospitalized smokers: an evaluation of the "Ottawa Model".

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

PubMedID: 19903737

Reid RD, Mullen KA, Slovinec D'Angelo ME, Aitken DA, Papadakis S, Haley PM, McLaughlin CA, Pipe AL. Smoking cessation for hospitalized smokers: an evaluation of the "Ottawa Model". Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(1):11-8.
INTRODUCTION
Interventions for hospitalized smokers can increase long-term smoking cessation rates. The Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (the "Ottawa Model") is an application of the "5 A's" approach to cessation, customized to the hospital setting. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Ottawa Model in 9 hospitals in eastern Ontario.

METHODS
The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was used to evaluate the intervention. Trained outreach facilitators assisted 9 hospitals to implement the Ottawa Model; program delivery was then monitored over a 1-year period using administrative data and data from a follow-up database. A before-and-after study was conducted to gauge the effect of the Ottawa Model program on cessation rates 6 months after hospitalization. Self-reports of smoking cessation were biochemically confirmed in a random sample of patients, and all cessation rates were corrected for potential misreporting.

RESULTS
Sixty-nine percent of the expected number of smokers received the Ottawa Model intervention. Controlling for hospital, the confirmed 6-month continuous abstinence rate was higher after, than before, introduction of the Ottawa Model (29.4% vs. 18.3%; odds ratio = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.11-2.64; Z = 2.43; I(2) = 0%; p = .02). The intervention was more likely to accomplish counseling for smokers than delivery of medications or postdischarge follow-up. Attitudinal, managerial, and environmental challenges to program implementation were identified.

DISCUSSION
Trained outreach facilitators successfully implemented the Ottawa Model in 9 hospitals leading to significantly higher long-term cessation rates. The public health implications of systematic cessation programs for hospitalized smokers are profound.