[Course of gelastic epilepsy in a boy with non operated hypothalamic hamartoma].

Przeglad lekarski

PubMedID: 21442980

Biedron A, Steczkowska M, Gergont A, Kroczka S. [Course of gelastic epilepsy in a boy with non operated hypothalamic hamartoma]. Prz Lek. 2010;67(11):1217-22.
BACKGROUND
Gelastic epilepsy is usually symptomatic and most often associated with hypothalamic hamartoma. Usually, in the course of this epilepsy different seizure types develop, partial and generalized as well. Moreover, progressive behavioral disorders are observed. Pharmacological treatment is usually ineffective and surgical resection of the lesion is the only chance of clinical improvement.

AIM OF THE STUDY
Presentation of the experience from 5-year observation of the patient with gelastic epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma and comparison of this observation with previously reported in the literature with special attention to modern surgical treatment techniques.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
6-year-old boy with gelastic epilepsy diagnosed in September 2004 at the Department of Pediatric Neurology Chair of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology. Clinical, neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques were used.

RESULTS
The boy was admitted to the Department because of the attacks of inadequate laughter, aggression and hyperactivity, treated unsuccessfully in the out-patient clinic. On the basis of clinical manifestation and results of MR of the brain, diagnosis of gelastic epilepsy with associated hypothalamic hamrtoma was established. During next 5 years the patient remained under constant multispecialistic care (neurological, neurosurgical, endocrinological, psychological). Laughter attacks were accompanied by complex partial seizures and temporarily by generalized tonic seizures as a result of wrong response to pharmacological therapy. Despite of treatment modification with the use of mono and polytherapy the complete control of the seizures was not achieved only partial reduction. Behavioral improvement was also not achieved. The risk of the operation of the lesion was to high due to its size and location and the boy was not qualified for surgical treatment. Analysis of the literature concerning the surgical treatment in the patients with drug resistant gelastic epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma indicates the need of further studies in this area to establish qualification criteria for each type of surgical technique in order to minimize the risk of operative complications.

CONCLUSIONS
Diagnosis of gelastic epilepsy is often delayed due to untypical character of the seizures, treated as non-epileptic behavioral disorders. Drug resistance in this type of epilepsy cause search of better and better surgical techniques and establishment of criteria enabling to choose optimal method for every patient.