Glycoprobes as a tool for the study of lectins expressed on tumor cells.

Acta histochemica

PubMedID: 19285339

Kurmyshkina O, Rapoport E, Moiseeva E, Korchagina E, Ovchinnikova T, Pazynina G, Belyanchikov I, Bovin N. Glycoprobes as a tool for the study of lectins expressed on tumor cells. Acta Histochem. 2010;112(2):118-26.
Polyacrylamide glycoconjugates, Glyc-PAA, having various tags or labels are convenient tools for analysis of cellular lectins. Adaptation of such glycoprobes for flow cytometry allows us to reveal lectins expressed on cell surface and analyze their carbohydrate specificity as well as functionality. Localization of lectins is visualized by labeling of cells with fluorescein-tagged glycoprobes, Glyc-PAA-fluo, in combination with fluorescent microscopy techniques. Additionally, biotinylated glycoprobes can be immobilized on magnetic particles making it possible to separate a cell population according to its carbohydrate-binding profile. Here, we exemplify application of glycoprobes in the study of cellular siglecs and galectins, as well as lectin patterning of tumor cells. The specificity of sialic acid binding membrane-anchored lectins, siglecs-1, -5, -7, -8 and -9 was determined using this methodology. To study the carbohydrate-binding profile of soluble galactoside-binding lectins, galectins-1 or -3, these were loaded on (initially galectin free) Raji cells and probed using Glyc-PAA-fluo. Lessons learned from this model system allowed us to study the galectin distribution pattern of tumors: cells obtained from mice carrying mammary adenocarcinoma or lymphoma were probed with Glyc-PAA-fluo using flow cytometry. Disaccharide 6OSuLacdiNAc was shown to be the most potent probe for adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating that 6OSuLacdiNAc-binding molecules accumulate on cell surface in a patch-wise distribution.