The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community.

BMC nephrology

PubMedID: 23947772

Wang Z, Hoy WE, Wang Z. The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14(1):176.
BACKGROUND
Albuminuria marks renal disease and cardiovascular risk. It was estimated to contribute 75% of the risk of all-cause natural death in one Aboriginal group. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is commonly used as an index of albuminuria. This study aims to examine the associations between demographic factors, anthropometric index, blood pressure, lipid-protein measurements and other biomarkers and albuminuria in a cross-sectional study in a high-risk Australian Aboriginal population. The models will be evaluated for albuminuria at or above the microalbuminuria threshold, and at or above the "overt albuminuria" threshold with the potential to distinguish associations they have in common and those that differ.

METHODS
This was a cross-sectional study of 598 adults aged 18-76 years. All participants were grouped into quartiles by age. Logistic regression models were used to explore the correlates of ACR categories.

RESULTS
The significant correlates were systolic blood pressure (SBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, diabetes, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (marginally significant, p?=?0.054) and serum albumin (negative association) for ACR 17+ (mg/g) for men and 25+ for women. Independent correlates were SBP, uric acid, diabetes, total cholesterol, alanine amino transferase (ALT), Cystatin C and serum albumin (negative association) for overt albuminuria; and SBP, CRP and serum albumin only for microalbuminuria.

CONCLUSIONS
This is the most detailed modelling of pathologic albuminuria in this setting to date. The somewhat variable association with risk factors suggests that microalbuminuria and overt albuminuria might reflect different as well as shared phenomena.